Levels of Technology Implementation


http://www.atimod.com All things in moderation website


In the 90's Dr Christopher Moersch outlined a framework for technology implementation.
Known as the LOTI or Level of Technology Implementation scale, this scale goes from little or no use of ICT in the classroom through infusion and integration to finally refinement.
This is useful tool to gauge and measure the implementation and adoption of ICTs into your classroom or school.
This graph represents the LOTI scale.

This model also works well with the Up and Over Model of Learning with ICT (Graph below) Parallels can easily be drawn between these two models however the LOTI scale is looking at a wider perspective looking at institutional implementation as opposed to personal position and adoption.
Up and Over Model of Learning with ICT

It also fits nicely with the model of adoption proposed by Dr Gilly Salmon. DR Salmon's Model looks at the adoption of online activities and has a similar feel to these models. Again this is on a personal level rather than a organisation level but the inclusion of Technical support requirements in it is useful and well thought out.
Source: http://www.atimod.com/images/5stage.gif
Source: http://www.atimod.com/images/5stage.gif

Level 0 - No Use

At the bottom end of the LOTI scale we have No use. As it suggests there is no use of Information and communications technology in the classrooms and the teachers in this environment use traditional tools only.
If computers are present in the classroom they remain unused for most of then teaching day.

Key question

Are cobwebs forming around your classroom computers?

Level 1 – Awareness.

In this level the computers are often based in laboratories and therefore computer access and use if scheduled planned and lacks spontaneity. Examples of this would be well intentioned basic level programs like:
Computer labs
Technology focused classes and pull outs
computer literacy and skills classes
The teachers use is limited to administration – rolls, marks, email etc, however these maybe some classroom use of the computer to enhance teaching like the use of presentation software.

Key Question

Who's using the computers? The teacher or the students?

Level 2 – Exploration

Here ICTs supplement and, to an extend, enhances the teaching and learning of the students. The technologies are used to enrich the learning experience or reinforce the lessons and learning. You may see web based research (including webquests) tutorials etc. There is often a focus on the technology rather than the learning or the outcomes.

Key Question

Is the focus more on computer use or on the critical content?

Level 3 – Infusion

A wide variety of tools ranging from databases to DTP to graphing tools and internet use are used to scaffold higher level thinking and more authentic learning. Students are asked to use the tools to analyse, conclude, infer and relate. Often these HOTS are reported and presented using (but not necessarily making) ICTs like presentations, web pages, blogs, threaded discussions, wikis etc
Bloom's taxonomy Lower order to Higher order thinking skills.

Key Question -

Is higher order thinking and problem solving linked to critical content the focus of computer use in the classroom?

Level 4 – Integration (Mechanical then Routine)

Integration is represented by two levels, Mechanical and Routine.
In the Mechanical integration the tools are used in a series of steps or structured processes. The integration adds to the learning and provides authentic structured learning. Often commercial packages are used or specific activities are designated for all to do as a minimum. Teachers are frequently supported by PD sessions and workshops, Just in time sessions before a unit is taught. ICT is seen to encourage Higher Order Thinking Skills
In Routine Integration, teachers have progressed beyond the mechanical step by step process of implementing to a standard or level. They can design their own units and materials (as opposed to implementing the activities developed by some one else either commercially or from within the faculty or school). Unlike mechanical integration, these staff do not require extensive support.

Key Questions

Do classroom management issues relating to authentic, problem-based learning impede your progress with this type of teaching and learning approach?” and “Is designing and managing student-based learning experiences using the available computers the most rewarding part of your workday?

Level 5 – Expansion

Here the boundaries of the classroom start to dissolve as the students and teachers begin networking. Classes use emerging tools like video and audio conferencing, collaborative wikis, participate in multi school and multi national projects. There is ownership and activism, risk taking and experimental/experiential learning. Students regularly but probably unconsciously use ICT to help with Higher order thinking skills creating, analysis evaluation, synthesis

Key Question

Are you ready to advance into uncharted areas of powerful teaching strategies linked to advanced technology use?

Level 6 - Refinement

The use of ICTs is seamless and invisible. Students select the “best tool for the job” and have a large arsenal of technologies and tools available to them. The classroom is learner centric and learner based, the curriculum is adaptable and flexible. There is no digital divide between students and they have equitable access. In short, there is no focus of technology as this is ubiquitous.

Key Question

Have you reached the promise land involving the power and potential of instructional computing?

In Conclusion.

This is a nice model and valid. We only need to look at our own schools to see a range of levels of implementation.
Then question to must be asked and answered, why do we need to use these technologies? Why should I implement these into my classroom practice?
Why indeed? The answers are simple too. If we continue to teacher our students in our tried and trusted mode that we have used for 20 or more years we are preparing them for a world that no longer exists. If we ignore these technologies we do this at our peril as our students are not. If we accept that an engaged student learns effectively and is better motivated we must use the tools that engage them. We know that experience and conditioning, shape and define the brain and its pathways; our students brains are shaped and conditioned to a fast moving, multiple input, sensory diverse, instantaneous and consistently changing world (Prensky, Jukes etc). We must - to engage motivate and captivate our students - operate in similar mediums and modes to the one's they experience and operate in. How often do we hear that our children are hugely influence by television and games, perhaps our children are not as influenced by teachers and schools because we are not using these mediums.