Bloom's - Introduction

Synopsis:

This is an update to Bloom's Revised Taxonomy which attempts to account for the new behaviours and actions emerging as technology advances and becomes more ubiquitous. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy accounts for many of the traditional classroom practices, behaviours and actions but does not account for the new processes and actions associated with Web 2.0 technologies and increasing ubiquitous personal and cloud computing.
Bloom's Digital Taxonomy isn't about the tools or technologies rather it is about using these to facilitate learning. Outcomes on rubrics are measured by competence of use and most importantly the quality of the process or product. For example. Bookmarking a resource is of no value if the resource is inappropriate or worthless.

external image pdf.png bloom's Digital taxonomy v3.01.pdf


Introduction and Background:

Bloom's Domains of learning

In the 1956, Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist working at the Universtiy of Chicago, developed his taxonomy of Educational Objectives. His taxonomy of learning objectives has become a key tool in structuring and understanding the learning process.
He proposed that learning fitted into one of three psychological domains (see below illustration 1):
  • the Cognitive domain – processing information, knowledge and mental skills
  • the Affective domain – Attitudes and feelings
  • the Psychomotor domain – manipulative, manual or physical skills
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Blooms Domains of learning. Made with C-Map

Blooms Domains of learning. Made with C-Map


Benjamin Bloom is best know for, Bloom's Taxonomy which examines looks at the cognitive domain. This domain categorises and orders thinking skills and objectives. His taxonomy follows the thinking process.

The Cognitive Domain - Bloom's Taxonomy

This categorised and ordered thinking skills and objectives. His taxonomy follows the thinking process. You can not understand a concept if you do not first remember it, similarly you can not apply knowledge and concepts if you do not understand them. It is a continuum from Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Bloom describe each category as a gerund. They are arranged below in increasing order, from lower order to higher order.

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Drawing 1. Bloom's Taxonomy

Drawing 1. Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

In the 1990's, a former student of Bloom, Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl, revised Bloom's Taxonomy and published this- Bloom's Revised Taxonomy in 2001. Key to this is the use of verbs rather than nouns for each of the categories and a rearrangement of the sequence within the taxonomy. They are arranged below in increasing order, from Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS).

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Drawing 2. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

Drawing 2. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Sub Categories

Each of the categories or taxonomic elements has a number of key verbs associated with it
Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)
  • Remembering - Recognising, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding
  • Understanding - Interpreting, Summarising, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying
  • Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing
  • Analysing - Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating
  • Evaluating - Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring
  • Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

The elements cover many classroom activities and objectives but they do not address the new objectives presented by the emergence and integration of Information and Communication Technologies in to the classroom and the lives of our students.
This revision is fundamentally based on the revised taxonomy proposed by Anderson et al, but is more inclusive of digital technologies and digital cognitive objectives.

Bloom's as a learning process.

Bloom's Taxonomy in its various forms represents the process of learning. It has been simplified in some case like the Three Story Intellect (Oliver Wendell Holmes and Art Costa), but it still essentially represents how we learn.

Before we can understand a concept we have to remember it
Before we can apply the concept we must understand it
Before we analyse it we must be able to apply it
Before we can evaluate its impact we must have analysed it
Before we can create we must have remembered, understood, applied, analysed, and evaluated.

Some people may argue about that you do not require some of the stages for each and every task, action or process; some too may argue about the necessity to reach the creation level for all activities. This is the choice of the individual.

Is it important where you start? Must I start with remembering?

I don't think it is. The learning can start at any point, but inherent in that learning is going to be the prior elements and stages.


Bloom's Digital Taxonomy


Bloom's Digital Taxonomy Summary Map


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Bloom's Digital Taxonomy Concept map.

Bloom's Digital Taxonomy Concept map.

Bloom's Digital Taxonomy and Collaboration.

In the Diagram above, Collaboration is included as a separate element as well as some elements being shared. Collaboration can take many forms (see above) and value of the collaboration can vary hugely. This is often independent of the mechanism used to collaborate. Also collaboration is not an integral part of the learning process for the individual, you don't have to collaborate to learn, but often your learning is enhance by doing so. Collaboration is a 21st Century skill of increasing importance and one that is used throughout the learning process. In some taxonomic levels the collaboration verbs are included as an element of Bloom's Digital taxonomy and in others its is just a mechanism which can be use to facilitate higher order thinking and learning.

Collaboration is not a 21st Century Skill, it is a 21st Century Essential.
In a recent blog post from the official google blog, Google identified the following as key traits or abilities in 21st Century Employees:
“... communication skills. Marshalling and understanding the available evidence isn't useful unless you can effectively communicate your conclusions.”
“... team players. Virtually every project at Google is run by a small team. People need to work well together and perform up to the team's expectations. ”
Source: http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2008/07/our-googley-advice-to-students-major-in.html
If we look at UNESCO's publication “The four pillars of Education, Learning: The Treasure within” Collaboration is a key element of each of the four pillars.
  • Learning to know
  • Learning to do
  • Learning to live together
  • Learning to be
(http://www.unesco.org/delors/fourpil.htm) [10]
So to prepare our students, our teaching should also model collaboration. A vast array of collaborative tools are available; wikis, classroom blogs, collaborative document tools,social networks, learning management systems - Many are available at no cost. If you have not yet tried them, look at:
  • wikis – wet paint and wiki spaces
  • Classroom blogs – edublogs, classroomblogmeister, blogger
  • Collaborative document tools – Google documents, zoho documents, adobe Buzzword
  • Social Networks – ning
  • learning managements systems – Moodle, Blackboard, Web CT, First Class.
These tools are enablers of collaboration, and therefore enablers of 21st century teaching and learning.